Short Definition of Bones

There are 206 Bones in the mature human skeleton. The skeleton is made up of clusters of bones and cartilage that give the body structure and form.

Bones Basic

Bones serve a variety of purposes. They provide support, mobility, and protection for our interior organs. Minerals that are essential for our physiological functioning are stored and released in our bones. The bone also produces and stores our blood cells.

The cortex is the outermost layer of a bone. Our skeletons rely heavily on it for support. It’s also where muscles and ligaments connect, allowing us to move. Bone marrow is the substance that is found within our bones.

The soft, spongy interior of bones is made up of marrow, which is a living tissue. Red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets are all produced in the bone marrow.

These blood cells play an important role in our overall well-being. The lungs provide oxygen to red blood cells, which then transport it to the body’s tissues. Infection and sickness are fought by white blood cells.

Platelets also aid in blood clotting, which helps to decrease bleeding. It’s more difficult for your body to stay healthy when cancer cells move to your bones.

What is Osteosarcoma (Bone Cancer) and How does it affect you?

Osteosarcoma (Bone Cancer) is a kind of cancer that starts in the bone. Unlike many other types of “bone cancer,” which start in other organs (such as the breast, prostate, or lung) and later spread to bone tissue (known as secondary bone cancer), osteosarcoma is a cancer of the bone itself (also known as primary bone cancer).

Types of Bone Cancer | What's Osteosarcoma and Signs and Symptoms | Treatment 2021
Osteosarcoma (Bone Cancer)

Osteosarcoma (also known as osteogenic sarcoma) is a malignancy that produces an immature and nonfunctional type of bone osteoid that invades and replaces normal bone tissue.

The presence of aberrant bone matrix assists in the diagnosis, both on radiographic imaging and in the lab pathologic investigation of the cells.

Primary & Secondary Bone  Cancer Types

Bone Cancer can be primary or secondary. The two kinds of bone cancer are distinct, and this fact page focuses on primary bone cancer solely.

Primary Bone Cancer

Primary bone cancer refers to cancer that begins in the bone. It can form on the bone’s surface, in the outer layer, or from the centre.

Cancer cells proliferate and destroy bone when a tumour becomes larger. Primary bone cancer has the potential to spread to other places of the body if it is not treated.

Secondary (Metastatic)

Secondary (metastatic) bone cancer – refers to cancer that began in another region of the body (such as the breast or lungs) and has spread to the bones.

Stages for Primary Bone Cancer (SPBC)

A cancer’s stage refers to how far it has spread throughout your body. Knowing the stages will aid your healthcare team in determining the best therapy for you. Primary bone cancer is staged in a variety of ways.

Types of Bone Cancer | What's Osteosarcoma and Signs and Symptoms | Treatment 2021
Bone Cancer 

The following phases are used by one of these systems:

  • Stage 1: The cancer is localised and contains low-grade cells, with no evidence of metastasis beyond the bone.
  • Stage 2: The cancer is localised and contains high-grade cells, with no evidence of spreading beyond the bone.
  • Stage 3: the cancer is localised, with many high-grade tumours in the same bone, and no dissemination outside the bone.
  • Stage 4: cancer has spread to other places of the body and is of any grade. The initial bone cancer has progressed to this stage.

Stages for Secondary Bone Cancer (SSBC)

  • When cancer cells from another region of the body move to the bones, it’s called secondary bone cancer. Doctors describe secondary bone cancer as advanced or stage 4 cancer since it has progressed beyond its original site.
  • If you’ve been diagnosed with bone cancer, talk to your doctor or nurse about the stage of your disease.

Types of Bone Cancer & Risk Factors

The following are the most common forms of bone sarcomas:

Osteosarcoma

Osteosarcoma is the most common bone sarcoma, and it generally begins in the cells that form new bone tissue, called osteoblasts. While osteosarcoma can strike anybody at any age (10% of patients are over 60), it is more common in children a

Types of Bone Cancer | What's Osteosarcoma and Signs and Symptoms | Treatment 2021
Types of Bone Cancer 

nd teenagers. It’s most commonly present at the extremities of longer bones, such as the arms and legs, especially at the knee. Aside from age, there are a number of other risk variables to consider:

  • Height: Children who are tall for their age appear to be more susceptible to the illness.
  • Gender: Males are more likely to get osteosarcoma.
  • Radiation Exposure: Higher doses of radiation therapy, as well as a younger treatment age, might increase your risk of osteosarcoma.
  • Non-cancerous bone illnesses: such as Paget’s disease and osteochondroma tumours, can raise your chance of osteosarcoma.
  • Inherited Cancer Syndromes: While osteosarcoma does not normally run in families, uncommon inherited cancer syndromes such as retinoblastoma (eye cancer), Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Rothmund-Thomson syndrome, Bloom syndrome, Werner syndrome, and Diamond-Blackfan anaemia can increase the risk.

Chondrosarcoma

the most prevalent adult bone sarcoma, develops in cartilage tissue and affects people over the age of 40. It can occur in the hip joints, pelvis, and shoulders, and is occasionally caused by a pre-existing benign (noncancerous) bone or cartilage tumour.

Ewing Sarcomas

Ewing Sarcomas are most commonly found in bone cells, but they can also occur in soft tissue cells. The pelvis, legs, and chest wall, including the ribs and shoulder blades, are the most common locations.

The following are some of the dangers:

  • Age: The majority of Ewing tumours occur in teenagers, however they can also occur in younger children and adults (usually in their 20s or 30s).
  • Race: Whites (Hispanic and non-Hispanic) are more likely than other races and ethnicities to develop Ewing tumours.

Signs and Symptoms

The size and location of the bone tumour, as well as your child’s age and overall health, all influence the symptoms of osteosarcoma.

The following are some of your child’s symptoms:

  • Tumor-related pain, stiffness, or discomfort
  • Prolonged pain that may extend outward from the tumour location.
  • Acute pain that jolts a youngster out of a deep slumber
  • Swelling or a mass in the area of the injured bone
  • Motor skills deterioration, such as walking difficulties or limping
  • Fractures due to brittle bones
  • Fatigue
  • Loss of body weight
  • Anemia

Back discomfort that extends out into the arms or legs is a symptom of osteosarcomas near the spinal cord.

Diagnosis

Types of Bone Cancer | What's Osteosarcoma and Signs and Symptoms | Treatment 2021
Diagnosis of Bone Cancer 

Your doctor will ask you questions about your symptoms and medical history, as well as do a physical examination. They’ll use imaging tests to look at images of your bones, such as:

  • X-rays, These depict tumours and their sizes.
  • Computed tomography scans, X-rays are used by computers to create more detailed images.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, These employ a powerful magnet to reveal what’s going on within your body.
  • PET scans (positron emission tomography), Radioactive glucose (sugar) is injected into your vein by a technician.
  • The cancer cells, which require more glucose than normal cells, are then detected using a scanner.
  • X-rays of the bones, A separate radioactive substance is injected into your vein by a technician. It gathers in your bones, where it may be seen by a scanner.

Blood tests may be ordered by your doctor to screen for two enzymes that might indicate blood malignancy.

A biopsy is a process that can be used to confirm a diagnosis. With a needle or an incision in your skin, your doctor extracts a sample of the tumour. Under a microscope, a qualified technician examines the tissue or cells.

They can determine if your tumour is benign or if it is the result of a primary or secondary malignancy. They can also see how quickly it is expanding.

The Treatment of Bone Cancer

Treatment for bone cancer is determined by the type of disease and the extent to which it has spread.

Types of Bone Cancer | What's Osteosarcoma and Signs and Symptoms | Treatment 2021
Treatment of Bone Cancer 

The majority of persons have a mix of the following:

  • Surgery to remove the malignant bone portion — while it is usually feasible to rebuild or replace the bone that has been removed, amputation is sometimes required.
  • Chemotherapy — This is a potent cancer treatment – medicine that kills
  • Radiotherapy — the use of radiation to kill malignant cells.

Mifamurtide, a medications used to treat osteosarcoma, may be indicated in some circumstances.

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