Introduction

Alopecia Areata is a kind of hair loss that affects men and women. Hair loss is caused by alopecia areata. It creates bald spots on the scalp, but it can also result in hair loss elsewhere on the body.

What is Alopecia Areata (AA)

Alopecia areata is a kind of hair loss that develops when your immune system destroys hair follicles, which are the starting points for hair development. The follicular damage is typically not permanent. The immune system targets the follicles for unknown reasons, according to experts.

Alopecia areata is more frequent in those under the age of 20, however it can affect children and adults of any age. Both men and women are impacted in the same way.

It’s an immune system condition that damages your hair on your scalp but isn’t life-threatening. Your body misinterprets your hair follicles as a threat when you have this illness. The hair follicles are being attacked by the body. Some or all of your hair will fall out as a result of this condition. The hair on your head is generally where it starts.

There are 3 types of alopecia, each with its own set of symptoms:

  1. Aerial Areata (patchy hair loss on your head)
  2. Totalitarian (complete hair loss on your head)
  3. Universale (the loss of all body hair)

Alopecia is not a contagious condition. It can affect persons of various ages. It is more frequent among youngsters and people in their early twenties, though.

Main 5 Common Types of Alopecia Areata | What is Alopecia Areata
Alopecia Areata

Alopecia is distinct from telogen effluvian hair loss, which can result from physical stress such as fast weight loss or pregnancy. Telogen effluvian is the most prevalent kind of hair loss, and it generally results in hair growth.

5 Common Types of Alopecia Areata

  1. Alopecia Androgenetica
  2. Male – Pattern Baldness
  3. Female – Pattern Baldness
  4. Scarring Alopecia
  5. Non – Scarring Alopecia

Alopecia Androgenetica

The most prevalent kind of hair loss in the United States is androgenetic alopecia, which affects more than 50 million men and 30 million women. Androgenetic alopecia is an inherited condition that can be treated with medication or surgery.

Male – Pattern Baldness

This is the most prevalent kind of alopecia, affecting almost half of all males by the age of 50. This kind of baldness, also known as androgenic or androgenetic alopecia, is inherited and considered to be linked to an excess of a hormone that affects hair follicles. The hairline recedes and the hair gets thin in male-pattern baldness. Hair loss commonly occurs in a man’s late twenties or early thirties.

Main 5 Common Types of Alopecia Areata | What is Alopecia Areata
Alopecia Areata

This is a prevalent balding pattern in males that grows more frequent as they become older. Bitemporal recession and/or central recession may occur, resulting in a horseshoe shape of surviving hair.

Aetiology

  • A lot of genes contribute to genetic predisposition.
  • There are several systems at work. Over time, the hair follicles shrink. Thinner hairs with less pigmentation progressively take the place of terminal hairs. Hairs spend less time in the anagen phase and have fewer hairs in the growth phase. Shorter hairs that don’t reach the skin’s surface are the ultimate consequence. Telogen hairs are less tightly connected and more easily fall off. Finally, the interval between telogen phase shedding and anagen phase regrowth has lengthened.
  • Although androgen levels in afflicted males are typically normal, it is thought to be androgen-dependent. Men who are lacking on their heads may have an abundance of hair on the rest of their bodies, as the disease is caused by end-organ sensitivity to androgens. Dihydrotestosterone is formed via the conversion of testosterone by dermal cells. Affected hair follicles become more susceptible to dihydrotestosterone for unknown reasons, and the hair follicles shrink as a result.

Female – Pattern Baldness

Women can also be affected by baldness. Scientists are unsure if female-pattern baldness is genetic or what causes it, although it appears to be more common in postmenopausal women, probably due to hormonal changes.

Main 5 Common Types of Alopecia Areata | What is Alopecia Areata
Alopecia Areata

In genetically predisposed women, this is a common pattern of hair loss. Hair loss is more widespread in women than in males, affecting the top of the head in particular.

Aetiology

  • Terminal hairs eventually give way to smaller, less pigmented hairs. There are less hairs in the anagen period. Telogen hairs have a looser attachment and are more likely to come off.
  • Androgens’ genetic foundation and involvement in female pattern hair loss are less well understood than in male pattern hair loss.
  • There may be early-onset and late-onset variants of the disease.

Scarring Alopecia (cicatricial alopecia)

Inflammation causes scarring alopecias, which causes the hair follicle to be destroyed, resulting in irreversible hair loss. It is occasionally possible to regenerate hair if the issue is addressed early in the illness process. Inflammatory illnesses such as discoid lupus erythematosus, lichen planopilaris, dissecting cellulitis, tufted folliculitis, folliculitis decalvans, alopecia mucinosa, central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, and acne keloidalis cause hair follicle loss. There are several therapies for these various illnesses, and they are typically condition-specific.

Non – Scarring Alopecia

Male and female pattern hair loss (also known as androgenetic alopecia), alopecia areata, telogen effluvium, and trichotillomania, as well as other less prevalent disorders, are non-scarring alopecias that are more frequent than scarring alopecias. Non-scarring hair loss can occur as a result of disorders such secondary syphilis, thyroid disease, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Senescent alopecia is a type of non-scarring hair loss that occurs as a result of normal ageing.

Facts about Alopecia Areata

  • Alopecia areata is a rare kind of hair loss that most commonly affects the scalp but can affect any hair-bearing surface.
  • Alopecia areata is a non-scarring alopecia that causes one or more patches of baldness without any visible changes in the texture of the afflicted skin.
  • Males and females are both affected by alopecia areata.
  • It’s assumed to be an autoimmune illness in which a faulty immune system damages hair follicles.
  • The problem usually goes away on its own within a year, although hair loss might be permanent in certain cases.
  • Hair regeneration can be aided by a variety of procedures. Multiple therapies may be required, and none of them are guaranteed to succeed for all patients.

Causes

You should consult with a dermatologist to figure out what’s causing your alopecia so that the underlying problem can be addressed.

Alopecia is caused by a number of reasons:

Main 5 Common Types of Alopecia Areata | What is Alopecia Areata
 Alopecia Areata 

Treatments for Cancer

Chemotherapy and several forms of radiation treatment

Diet

Protein, as well as some vitamins and minerals, such as vitamin D and iron, are in short supply.

Problems with Hair

Alopecia areata, an autoimmune illness characterised by circular patches of hair loss, is among them.

Androgenetic Alopecia (Male-Pattern Baldness)

The most prevalent cause of hair loss or thinning is inherited from one’s parents’ DNA.

Hormonal Changes

Pregnancy, childbirth, and menopause are all things that women go through.

Medical Problems

Thyroid illness, anaemia, lupus, and other autoimmune diseases

Medications

These include medications for heart disease, high blood pressure, depression, and arthritis.

Physical or Psychological Trauma

As a result of childbirth or a serious sickness, for example.

What are the People Who are in Danger?

Though it has been recorded in people of various ages, alopecia areata has two peaks of onset, one in infancy and one in maturity. Alopecia areata has a hereditary base, similar to other autoimmune disorders, and unknown causes cause hair loss.

Type 1 diabetes, celiac disease, rheumatoid arthritis, vitiligo, thyroid illness, multiple sclerosis, and inflammatory bowel disease are only a few of the disorders associated with an elevated risk in the patient or family.

What is the Average Duration of Hair Loss?

Individual episodes of hair loss persist less than a year in half of alopecia areata patients, while hair regrows without therapy in the other half. These people may have recurrent hair loss that regrows on its own or responds swiftly to therapy.

Other people experience a more gradual deterioration of their hair loss, which does not regrow on its own and may not react to various therapies. There is currently no way to determine which patients will have a limited and temporary involvement and which individuals will have substantial and long-term hair loss.

Diagnosis

Physical examination and a thorough patient history are used substantially in the diagnosis of alopecia. It’s crucial to classify hair loss by determining the timing and pattern of hair loss. For example, androgenetic alopecia is most likely the reason of progressive hair loss. It’s also crucial to rule out any underlying medical issues, such as thyroid disease, vitamin D insufficiency, or iron deficiency, which may necessitate the use of certain laboratory testing. A scalp biopsy may be used to confirm the diagnosis of alopecia if it cannot be established by clinical examination.

Main 5 Common Types of Alopecia Areata | What is Alopecia Areata
Alopecia Areata 

Remedy at Home

Because research supporting natural therapies for alopecia are few, studies supporting natural remedies for alopecia are much scarcer.

Some individuals advocate massaging the scalp with onion or garlic juice, cooled green tea, almond oil, rosemary oil, honey, or coconut milk. While none of them are likely to cause damage, evidence does not support their efficacy.

Alternative therapies such as acupuncture and aromatherapy are used by some people, despite the fact that there is little, if any, evidence to back them up.

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